Students from California Middle School found a lot more snow than they were expecting this weekend at the Clair Tappaan Lodge on Donner Summit. During this science trip, they spent 3 days designing and completing their own original scientific research projects. They came up with a wonderfully creative spread of research questions such as: What are the sound muffling properties of snow? Do we find more invertebrates where there are fewer birds?
In total students collected over 1,000 data points to test their hypotheses. Over the course of the trip students spent over 13 hours of their time dedicated to science alone, which is the equivalent to 2 weeks of science class.
Between all this hard work, students were able to sneak in some group bonding time sledding, building an igloo, and playing games around the lodge. Beyond creating some impressive sled runs and research projects, students also practiced valuable science skills. Between pre- and post-program surveys 100% of students reported overcoming a challenge with their projects and the percentage of students who responded as “Very Confident” in their ability to apply the scientific method increased by 30%.
Student Research Highlights
One of the two groups of students studying invertebrates found that invertebrates were highest near water sources and in tree stumps. In addition to overcoming their fear of spiders, this group concluded that insects were more common near water because of the role water plays in many insects’ reproductive life cycles. They also hypothesized that more invertebrates were found in stumps because most of these insects were decomposers and that the stumps may have offered invertebrates shelter from the cold weather.
Some students used speakers and audio recording equipment to measure how different depths of snow could muffle sound. They found that 50 cm of snow could almost completely muffle the loudest sound a human could make.
Three students surveyed snow depth around the lodge to learn about factors that affect snow depth in the spring. They collected data in areas that had been impacted by humans as well as in undisturbed places. They found that places humans had walked had average snowpack that was of 30% less than nearby undisturbed areas. These students thought that this was because people walking on snow caused to become dirtier, and therefore darker, which led to that area melting faster.
Understanding the mechanics of snow melt in the Sierra is especially for the hydrologists who manage California’s many reservoirs in order to prevent flooding and supply drinking water throughout dry summer months. For more information about the importance of water in the Sierra, check out a previous blog post with information on the water cycle.
Headwaters would like to thank the Sierra Club for partnering with us to offer lodging at the Clair Tappaan Lodge.