SWOPE Students Work With Bird Feeders

As our fall programs begin to wrap up we wanted to share one special program with you. Students and teachers at the SWOPE Middle School of Reno, NV are using bird feeder systems to create projects around bird adaptation and natural selection. While we love using bird feeders as an experimental system, the special component of this program is the teachers’ leadership. One of the big goals Headwaters has is to go beyond strong student learning experiences and support teachers being able to lead these research projects on their own. This fall marks the third year Headwaters has worked with these SWOPE science teachers. During this years’ program, teachers were able to lead large parts of the program without Headwaters even being in the room. Our instructors come in primarily to give feedback and support on when a lower student-teacher ratio is needed. 

Let’s talk a closer look at the really neat projects these SWOPE students and teachers are conducting.

The goal of this program is that students investigate how adaptations and genetic traits can increase some individuals’ probability of surviving and reproducing. To do this their teachers hung up bird feeders all around their school and helped students ask their own original science questions about how birds find enough to eat and avoid getting eaten during the harsh Reno winters. The student research questions ranged from “Do birds preferentially eat different types of foods on different days?” to “How does the location of the bird feeder, in open or tree areas, affect rates of visitation?” and “Will the ratio of birds observed at the feeder to birds near the school but not at the feeder change through the months of November and December?”

Once students had come up with their own original scientific questions with their teachers, Headwaters instructors helped them design and test their experiments. Over the rest of November and December, students and their teachers will be collecting data on to test their research questions. In mid-December, Headwaters instructors will come back to help with data analysis and discussion of the groups’ scientific findings.

We are excited to return to these classes in December and will share the results of the student experiments with you then. Between then and now we wanted to thank the many partners that have made this 3-year program series possible. Your support has allowed us to provide great learning opportunities to over 900 students and more importantly given a set of Washoe County science teachers a toolbox of teaching strategies to continue using when Headwaters moves on to working with the next school in need. Thank you to Silver Sage Center for Family Medicine, the Teichert Foundation, and the many community members who supported this program through the Headwaters Dinner for Two Anywhere in the World Raffle for making this program possible!

To learn more about making your own bird feeder, check out an older blog post here!

Barrett Middle School’s Donner Summit Trip

We had the pleasure of working with 100 students from Sacramento’s Barrett Middle School, and bringing them to Donner Summit for a field research day. These students began with an in-class reading and research designing day, where they came up with some creative research projects and questions like:

-How many birds live in a forested area compared to next to water?
-Are there more insects near the water or near the trees/forest area?
-How does moisture affect the size and diversity of plants?
-How does the temperature of water effect the amount of organisms in it?
-How does water quality affect the number of macro-invertebrates in an area?
-How does the temperature of the water affect the population of the fish?

On Donner Summit, students had access to both a forested area and a large meadow as well as a stream within their field site. They split into groups based on their study topic, with different groups studying fish, water quality, soil, or insects. They were able to explore a variety of diverse environments, collect and analyze data, and later form it into a research presentation.

To finalize their research, students presented their findings to one another in class, solidifying what they’d learned during the trip.

A special thank you goes out to teacher Lori Sindel-Wawro for working so hard to find funding for this program! This program was funded through the McCarthy Dressman Grant.

Urban School students present at Celebrate Science

On Oct. 20, students and parents gathered for Celebrate Science San Francisco, an evening of research presentations. This group is from Urban School, and studied the riparian corridor.

Three to four times per year Headwaters holds a student science symposium like this, offering students an opportunity to present their research in a formal setting, which is both great college prep, and simulates the experience of being a professional scientist.

College Prep Students Study Lake Temescal

Last week students from the College Preparatory School’s A.P. Environmental Studies course teamed up with Headwaters Science Institute to investigate the water quality and living organisms in Lake Temescal. 

Not only is this field site right next to school, but it also features several interesting ecological systems in a small area. Due to its unique geography and proximity to urban areas, Lake Temescal has historically been prone to harmful algal blooms. Starting in the 1980’s, several restoration projects have moderately reduced the amounts of nutrients flowing into the lake and the subsequent algal blooms. The goal of this science program was for students to create their own original research projects around Lake Temescal that further our understanding of its water quality and the potential for harmful algal blooms. 

The highlight of this program was the field day, where students interacted with Oakland Public Works staff who were also testing water quality at Lake Temescal following Tuesday’s earthquake. Several retired sewage pipes still drain into the lake. Public works staff were on-site doing several of the same tests as students looking for signs of leaky pipes. Students got to see tangible applications of their research projects and Public Works staff looked over student data to corroborate their own test results.

After analyzing their results, on group found that the sediment catchment pond at the main inlet of the lake reduced the amount of phosphate entering the lake. Other groups found a greater diversity of insects in the faster-flowing waters than the lake and ponds. Students were somewhat surprised to see low levels of nitrogen but hypothesized that what any nitrogen entering this system is very quickly used up by the plants and alga in the lake. 

Urban School Ecology Program

Headwaters was excited to return to the Urban School of S.F. to help students conduct scientific research in the Rodeo Lagoon watershed. Over four sessions, we guided students through asking original science questions and conducting experiments to test their questions. Through this process, students not only learned about this unique ecosystem but also gained valuable critical thinking skills. Read on to learn more about their awesome research projects. An overview of riparian areas can be found in this blog post featuring a great article from Global Rangelands.

Field Site: The Gerbode Valley riparian corridor in Rodeo Lagoon.

While the focal question of this program was “What factors affect the riparian corridor in the Gerbode Valley ecosystem?” each group chose a different way to investigate this further. Check out their questions below.

Question:  How do soil nitrate and phosphate levels change with distance from hiking trails and rivers? Hypothesis: Soil between path and river will have the most nutrients because that is where the most runoff will collect.

Question:  What is the relationship between soil quality and plant diversity along a transect from riparian areas to upland areas? Hypothesis: There will be higher diversity in riparian areas of plants compared to upland areas because riparian areas have more soil nutrients allowing a greater number of plant species. 

Question:  How does biodiversity change across a lateral riparian transect? Hypothesis: As you move higher in elevation, biodiversity decreases as does soil moisture content because plants grow better when they have water to grow. Vegetation densities will likely decrease as we move higher.

Question:  How does the salinity of different areas affect vegetation?  Hypothesis: In areas with more salt there will be less plant growth.

Overall students found that areas closer to the creek had a higher diversity of plants and soils with greater amounts of organic matter. In waterways closest to the lagoon there was less dissolved oxygen, but greater plant coverage along the shoreline. Beyond the results of their research, students also gained critical science skills. Between pre and post-program surveys the number of students who responded as “very confident” in their ability to apply the scientific method increased by 45%.